To fix the SD card not detected issue, you can assign a new drive letter with Disk Management, update or reinstall the driver on your PC, and repair the corrupted SD card. If nothing above works, you can use DBI or Hekate to mount the SD card as a writeable drive and you should be able to enjoy the games within.
Since your SD card can be detected by your Switch and Android phone and works quite well, it's not likely the SD card itself is wrong. Windows 10 sometimes has a weird bug with the drive letter assignment and stops recognizing your SD card. Therefore, you may try to assign a new drive letter to your SD card to solve the issue.
Another culprit may be the disk driver. It's possible the driver on your Switch is able to read your SD card while the one on your PC is not. You may check if there are any driver updates on your PC and update the disk driver.
The files needed for jailbreak may contain viruses and make your SD card corrupted. It's suggested to fully check the safety of jailbreak files before downloading. The good news is that you can fix corrupted SD card without formatting.
If none of these methods work for you, you still have a chance to enjoy the games from the SD card on a PC. That is to use DBI or Hekate to mount your SD card as mass storage via USB. In this case, you can easily see your files from the Switch.